Jet fuel (Jet A-1, kerosene)
Kerosene (Jet A-1) is one of the primary fuels used in jet turbine engines, and in particular in civil aircraft for compatible diesel engines, and its highest ignition temperature is 38°C, and its maximum freezing point is -47°C.
It is also called (JP-1A), and its origin is refined light oil known as kerosene, and it is one of the types that are in great demand globally, so it is subject to internationally standardized quality specifications.
A mixture of kerosene and gasoline (Jet B)
is used as a fuel (Jet B) in military aircraft, and it consists of 65% gasoline and 35% kerosene, and is characterized by its ability to adapt to low-temperature areas, due to its ability to burn at a temperature of 20 degrees Celsius, and the maximum Its freezing point is -72 degrees Celsius, which is much lower than kerosene (Jet A-1), and as a result, Jet B fuel is suitable for use in both Canada and Alaska, although it is necessary to The compatibility between aircraft engines and this type of fuel used in them, Jet B fuel is also a dangerous type of fuel, so it is rarely used.
Aviation Gasoline (Afgas)
Avgas fuel is one of the types that are used for small-sized aircraft in civil airports, which operate with engines based on the principle of piston, especially for private aviation, aviation clubs, and to perform training tasks, and for aircraft used to spray farms. There are two main types of Avgas fuel:
Avgas 100 fuel. Fuel (Avgas 100 LL). These numbers represent for each type the classification of the type of octane used, it is possible to operate aircraft based on gasoline with Afgas fuel as well, while aircraft powered by turbines or diesel engines are compatible with kerosene as their fuel only.
Biokerosinan is considered an alternative that will be adopted as a derivative of fossil fuels to operate aircraft, due to its dependence on biofuels; Like jatropha and camelina, it is a mixture of both kerosene and biofuels, and its compatibility with various types of aircraft has been confirmed after several test flights.
Within the 2009 International Civil Aviation Conference in Spain, a humanitarian initiative called “Bioqueroseno” emerged Which aims to replace the used aviation fuel with biokerosinan and its production, and was launched in 2011 AD, which led to the revitalization of many companies, and their quest to produce raw materials on which the production of biokerosinan is based, adopting refining techniques, and also providing logistics services for aviation.